Transhumanism is a recent form of speculative philosophy affined with Cyborg Art that attempts to break through the limits of human existence set by nature.

The adherents of this philosophy call themselves 'transhumanists' and claim that man has entered the post-Darwin era and can take his evolution into his own hands. Transhumanists generally subscribe to the views of traditional humanism but seek to explore and even transcend it to its limits. They propagate that humans will and must improve themselves physically or, by analogy with computers and software, upgrade themselves with techniques such as nanotechnology, genetic manipulation and far-reaching integration of computer technology into the human body. The goal to which transhumanists aspire is to become posthumanists.

Transhumanism Definiton

The Transhumanist FAQ, prepared by the Humanity+ - World Transhumanist Association, provides the following two formal definitions:

  1. The intellectual and cultural movement that promotes the possibility and desirability of fundamentally improving the human condition through applied reasonableness in particular by developing and making generally available technologies to cure old age and improve the intellectual, physical and psychological capacities of human beings.
  2. The study of the ramifications, promises and potential dangers of technologies that will enable us to eliminate our basic human limitations, and the related study of the ethical issues applicable to the development and use of such technologies.
The Future of Humanity - with Yuval Noah Harari.

Transhumanism History

  • Biologist Julian Huxley, brother of Aldous Huxley, defined transhumanism in 1957 as: "man remains human, but transcends himself, by realising new possibilities for his human nature".
  • In 1966, FM-2030 (formerly F.M. Esfandiary), an Iranian-American futurologist who taught 'New Concepts of Man' at the New School University, began to identify people as 'transhumanist' (from 'transitional human' = intermediate stage between present man and posthumanist) as they adopted new technologies, lifestyles and worldviews.
  • In 1968, Abraham Maslow referred to transhumanism in Towards a Psychology of Being.
  • With the publication of the book Future Shock (1970) by Alvin Toffler, the term transhumanism became more widely known among the public, especially in the US.
  • In 1972, Robert Ettinger referred to transhumanists in Man to Superman.
  • In 1990, Max More gave the emerging philosophy of Transhumanism its modern definition:

"Transhumanism is a class of philosophies that seeks to guide us to the posthumanist condition. Transhumanism adopts many elements of humanism, such as respect for reason and science, an emphasis on progress, and an appreciation of human (or transhuman) existence in this life[...] Transhumanism differs from humanism in its recognition and anticipation of the radical changes in the nature and possibilities of our lives brought about by the various scientific and technological disciplines[...]."
- Max More, 1990


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This page was last changed on 2021-09-21.